Stuppy Aquaponics Blog

System update: Niles, 2/7/18

Posted by Conor Quinlan on Feb 7, 2018 2:30:00 PM

Niles

 

Nitrogen (mg/L)

 

 

Date

pH

Total Ammonia

Ammonia

Nitrite

Nitrate

Temp (Fo)

EC (mS)

1/08

6.22 -> 7.00

0

N/A

0

-

71

1.94

1/12

6.8

0

 

0

LAB

68.2

2.03

1/15

6.7

0

 

0

-

68

2.00

1/18

6.5 -> 6.95

0

 

0

-

68

2.08

1/24

6.85

0

 

0

-

71.2

2.07

1/30

7.2

0

 

0

-

70.4

2.15

2/01

7.14

0

 

0

-

73.6

2.22

image showing off the full height of the tomatoes which are all fruiting very well in the media bed.

The full height of the tomatoes which are all fruiting very well in the media bed.

 

Water Quality Overview:

Niles will now have it's pH automatically adjusted to maintain the ideal level of 7.2 on a consistent basis using a sensing unit called the pH Mini. The automatic injector uses a relay module, pH probe and peristaltic pump to input a defined amount of concentrated K2CO3 solution after a specific time interval as the pH drops below 7.0. The pH Mini is the third small scale sensor based unit to be tested as a potential Aqueduct accessory and the first to provide the advantage of water quality control. It has been functioning since 1/26 and is the most comprehensive unit to date.

In the image belowyou can see the unit installed just above the system sump which contains the input line for the concentrated K2CO3 buffer solution. The line has been anchored just below the float bed overflow drain to induce the immediate mixing of buffer and system solutions minimizing nutrient precipitation

controller.jpg 

The monthly supplement regiment will remain identical to last month since lab results indicate the system is maintaining ideal nutrients levels for reproductive growth:  200 g of STP (super triple phosphate) 20 g of Micro Mix, 70 g of Chelated iron and 50 grams of MnSO4

 

The results of the water sample from 1/12 reflect that most nutrients levels have reached an equilibrium:

Parameter

Concentration (ppm) (4/20)

Concentration (ppm) (6/20)

Concentration (8/22)

Conc. (10/27)

Conc, (12/06)

Conc.

(1/12)

E.C.

0.64 mS/cm

0.99

1.04

1.16

1.51

1.66

Ca

36.91

48.53

49.11

44.08

47.35

47.1

Mg

23.5

51.83

54.72

54.8

62.34

69.55

Na

60.39

70.27

87.75

100.47

109.65

109.49

Cl

35.31

56.76

49.39

67.52

73.39

73.15

B

0.17

0.44

0.33

0.5

0.69

0.77

Fe

0

2.65

3.76

7.03

7.98

7.65

Mn

0

0.05

0.01

0.04

0.06

0.06

S

64.36

68.65

76.63

96.8

110.28

117.14

Cu

0.01

0.28

0.19

0.34

0.68

0.71

Zn

0

1.16

1.19

1.74

2.62

2.67

Mo

0.01

0.07

0.2

0.03

0.05

0.04

NO3-N

0.02

31.47 (140 as NO3)

35.97

29.38

51.7

70.42

(313 as NO3)

NH4-N

6.73

0.78

0.9

2.77

0.79

0.13

P

0.9

3.96

0

12.19

28.06

32.02

K

10.77

32.87

12.27

36.15

143.37

142.85

The Sodium accumulation rate has actually decreased for the first time which means Na levels aren’t as significant an issue as previously anticipated. The system hasn’t been drained once since it was reset early April of last year and is therefore no longer a major requirement to keep water quality adequate for crops.

Phosphate and Potassium concentrations are remaining relatively stable. This  means the overall fruiting crop nutrient uptake is nearly identical to what is being supplemented. We can confidently conclude that K2CO3 combined with a simple monthly natural supplementation regiment can replicate ideal water quality conditions with a precision similar to that observed in hydroponic systems, and with less effort

Total Nitrogen content has continued to increase at a steady rate and has reached the optimal concentration given the concentrations of P and K.  The system is right around the ideal N:P:K ratio for maintaining reproductive production while maintaining enough vegetative production to continuously promote further growth.

Low Manganese levels continue to be an issue despite doubling the levels of MnSO4. The solubility is not great at higher pH’s and therefore a chelated Mn compound MUST be utilized when naturally available concentrations are negligible in the source water. These minute concentrations do not appear to be affecting many crops negatively, including all the tomato varieties. The only crop that has been affected is spaghetti squash which still has no problem producing viable fruit.

Another water sample will be collected next week by 2/07

 

Fish Overview:

No changes have occurred in the fish feeding rate since the last post a month ago. 180 grams/day has been enough feed to provide the nitrate needed by all the fruiting crops is the media bed and the strawberries in the NFT channels. Total available nitrogen content has increased 20 mg/L since the previous water quality test. That is nearly 90 mg/L of nitrate which is good for maintaining vegetative structure during reproduction.

 

Crop Overview

Four tomato varieties, two pepper varieties and one large squash continue to grow very well under the powerful LED Plessely light fixtures. Reproductive growth continues to dominate all crops and fruit production is at its peak with regular harvests occurring weekly. The spaghetti squash has nearly finished forming its second fruit which is nearly a foot in length and several lbs (See next image)

media1.jpg

It has taken a while but the Jalapeno (firstimage) and Habanero (second image) varieties are making considerable progress on the formation of viable peppers.  These should be harvestable within the next couple weeks.

 media2.jpgmedia3.jpg

All tomato varieties are still producing flowers and have been harvested twice recently, with a 3rd harvest planned for 2/05. Production is identical to that observed in the hydroponic system and blind taste tests show that tomatoes of the same varieties grown in different systems are indistinguishable from each other.

media4.jpg

Above is an image showing off several varieties of tomatoes that have almost fully ripened.  

Strawberries.jpg

 

 NFT Strawberry Update:

Since the last update the number of flowering strawberry crops has increased to 12 crops. This is well over half and is fairly substantial. Of those crops nine of the flowering individuals are younger runners, while the older individuals only make up three of the flowering strawberry crops. It is becoming apparent that once any variety has flowered once, it is more difficult to flower again. Many of the crops now have ripe strawberries making their first appearances and almost ready for harvest.  

Overall, strawberries are best planted in the early spring allowing vegetative growth to fully form by the time the winter season starts and cool temperatures and/or artificial lighting schedule can induce flowering. Fruits are always best grown in cooler temperatures, and are often better tasting too. After the flowering stops the runners should be utilized and grown in the same manner.

 

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Update:

Since transplanting several outdoor strawberry crops into the NFT channels connected to Nile the aphid population has begun to explode. Like thrips, aphids are hard to spot in the winter as they will produce deep within the strawberry canopy where it is warmer.

Pyrethrum, neem oil and spinosad were applied to only crops infested with the pests (5-6) but there was little effect. 

Similar to the thrips natural pesticides were simply not enough to remove the majority of populations hidden within the crops. So, for the first time Beneficials are being tested in the system to determine their effectiveness at removing large pest populations as well as observe how well the beneficial remain within the confines of the system grow area over time.

Ladybugs are the best candidate for testing trials as they are well known for their love of consuming aphids. They are also known to eat many other common pests including thrips. Approximately 300-350 ladybugs were released on 2/01 and were observed over a several hour period to find that they not only started feeding on the largest aphid populations immediately but also started mating vigorously. After 24 hours many ladybugs could be easily located among the leaves indicating individuals aren’t moving away from the system.

Strawberries2.jpg

Ladybugs are hardy and can tolerate a range of temperatures. They are better suited for utilization in smaller systems like the Aqueduct when temperatures are lowerso they are less likely to migrate away over time.

Other Crops Affected? Recently after discovering aphids on the strawberries a huge population managed to manifest quickly under portions of the spaghetti squash crop in the media bed. This was of particular concern as the tomato crops are fairly close to the infestation. 

What’s the Next Step? Next is to observe the progress of the ladybugs removal over the course of this next week and determine whether more Beneficial’s are required or additional IPM steps need to be taken. In the unlikely event the ladybugs disperse quickly or can’t hold back the growth rate of the aphid population a different beneficial will be utilized and is the main active ingredient in “BotaniGaurd” which uses predatory fungi to destroy pest eggs and larvae.

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Topics: Aquaponics, Insect Control, Niles, Strawberries, Pest Management, Beneficials, Aquaponic Supplements

System Update: Frasier 1/9/18

Posted by Conor Quinlan on Jan 9, 2018 2:30:00 PM

Frasier

 

Nitrogen (mg/L)

 

 

Date

pH

Total Ammonia

Ammonia

Nitrite

Nitrate

Temp (Fo)

EC (mS)

12/6

6.45 ->7.2

0

N/A

0

190 mg/l

75

1.26

12/13

6.75

0

 

0

-

65, 72

1.38

12/20

5.8 -> 7.02

0.5

 

0

-

66,77

1.52

12/23

6.5 -> 7.2

0

 

0

-

-

1.60

1/02

6.0 -> 7.1

0.5

 

0

-

57, 64.5

1.90

1/05

6.6

0

 

0

NEW Lab Sample

71.5

1.88

Above is what the media bed and float bed looked like before harvesting on 12/20. Both snap peas and beans grow exceptionally well within the Aqueduct’s media bed and are recommended for use in the curriculum. Below is an image of the media bed and float bed with the new seedlings on 1/02 (seeded 12/20). Nutrient accumulation has been allowed to build up during this seedling stage allowing for greater absorption for heavy feeding crops in the near future.

Water Quality

pH fluctuations are allowing for greater additions of the carbonate compound K2CO3, which has increased the concentration of K since the last lab test. The fluctuation has sometimes been extreme bringing the pH to as low as 5.8. This causes an increase in the ammonia concentration as the nitrying bacteria cannot function well at pH’s below 6.5. Between 100-150 gram K2CO3 has been required since the lab test on 12/20 and has been required on a near weekly basis. K2CO3 will need to be replaced by Mg and Ca carbonate based compounds to keep K from competing with cation based nutrient uptake. High K levels potentiate Mn deficiencies, given their similar charge, and have led to slight deficiencies observed in several string beans crops.

Super triple phosphate (STP), Micro Mix, Chelated Iron and MnSO4 have been added this month on 1/02 to speed up the production process. The following amounts of nutrients were added to the system the last month:

STP -> 100 grams, Chelated Iron -> 75 grams, MnSO4 -> 50 grams, Micro Mix -> 15 grams.

The values above have been increased since last month’s addition, notably Mn. These additions have helped increase the EC quickly. Below are the results of the lab sample taken on 12/06:

Parameter

Conc. (ppm)
(8/22)

Conc. (ppm)

10/27

Conc. (ppm)

12/06

E.C.

1.53

0.86

1.16

Ca

64

39.06

42.31

Mg

79.5

34.19

42.84

Na

148.31

73.57

86.19

Cl

98.68

47.76

57.83

B

0.51

0.32

0.48

Fe

6.15

3.53

4.31

Mn

0.08

0.03

0.04

S

138.65

67.79

81.11

Cu

0.46

0.43

0.59

Zn

2.35

0.81

1.22

Mo

0.23

0

0

NO3-N

29.53

26.98

43

NH4

1.18

3.26

0.97

PO4-P

10.58

8.6

13.53

K

28.34

25.48

97.04

The results above show there are several key nutrients that are having an impact on water quality conditions. The negative issues are results of low quality source water and high sodium feed which we currently use to run the system. Our 3.5mm catfish feed has a lower sodium content and has shown to produce lower sodium accumulation over time.

Positives:

Nitrate – As the fingerling have grown in size they have produced a large amount of ammonia based waste which has been converted into nitrate by the nitrifying bacteria in the media bed. This increase has put nitrate level at the lower end of the ideal range for aggressive vegetative growth.

Phosphate – Very important for fruiting crops, phosphate levels don’t need to be nearly as high as nitrate and potassium; in fact, very little P is required for the successful growth of leafy green and vegetative based crops within aquaponics. However, flower development and root growth rate is greatly affected by P concentrations, therefore when root growth is minimal it could be due to very low phosphorous levels.

Potassium – Probably the single most important nutrient for most fruiting crops, potassium is required in the highest concentration by varieties such as tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers. Higher levels of potassium are obtained from the compound K2CO3 which is added to buffer pH as well as add large doses of K. Thanks to the ideal water and air temperatures the pH has consistently decreased over time requiring regular carbonate additions. This will be useful for the growth of heavy feeding cold season crops that will be seeded in the near future, such as Brussel sprouts and cabbage varieties.

Negatives:

Sodium – Sourced from both the tap water and fingerling fish feed. The feed is the primary cause of higher sodium levels over time but decreases when it is changed to the 3.5 mm size catfish feed which is prepared with a lower sodium content. Some few crops, mainly light feeding herbs like oregano and thyme, cannot be seeded at these concentrations. It is recommended to seed crops in a small germination station outside the system with pure water when Na is >100 ppm before transplanting into the system.

Manganese (Mn) – Mn can often be sourced directly from the water being used, nut unfortunately our tap water doesn’t contain sufficient levels of dissolved Mn. While MnSO4 does appear to add some Mn to the solution it is very minimal due to the compounds lower solubility at higher pHs. For this reason, double the amount of MnSO4 (50 grams) was added during the most recent addition.

The higher temperatures during the summer months caused pH to remain consistently high, lowering carbonate addition required. Lower temperatures over the winter, coupled with inline water heating, has led to the appropriate pH response of decreasing overtime. This is due to the water temperature staying within a more ideal range for the nitrifying bacteria. Based on experimentation and observations in the summer and winter it is clear that clogging is far more likely to occur when the water temperature is EITHER higher or lower than the ideal range of between 70-78 F.

A water sample was taken on 1/05 for JR laboratories and will be discussed in the next update.

Fish Update:

The last fish weighing was taken on 12/23 before the holiday break and each fish weighed an average of 100 grams, up 20 grams compared with what they were two weeks before. According to our fish growing schedule the tilapia are slightly above where they should be in terms of size, while being lower in anticipated feeding rate. The fish were fed a max of 145 grams of feed per day before weighing, according to the tilapia grow schedule they should require 180 grams per day at their current size.

Water temps are falling further below the ideal level due to the low air temperatures in the warehouse and therefore the feeding rate had to be further decreased from the max of 156 grams per day, set after weighing, to a minimum of 120 grams per day. Whether this will affect the growth rate of the tilapia will be determined during the next weighing.

Despite the low feeding rate, the fish are of adequate size to switch over to the 3.5mm catfish feed starting next week.  

 

Crop Update:

The entire system has been filled with new cold season crops. The float beds contain both iceberg and green/red cabbage varieties while the media bed contains more string bean and snap pea varieties. This time far more snap peas were seeded as they were found to take up far less space than the beans.

The crops are growing but unfortunately the thrip infestation came back over the holidays and nearly destroyed all the new seedlings. The area was treated with neem oil before seeding but thrips have been known to survive below the surface of media and given the cold air environment I wouldn’t be surprised if the thrips find this preferable, making them even more difficult to kill off. I have switched the natural pesticide to a pyrethrum/sulfur mix which is known for being fairly potent but is proving to be less effective than anticipated. The crops will continue to be sprayed until the infestation is depleted and other crops surrounding the area will be treated with the mix as well to help ensure they do not spread. If the mix doesn’t kill the thrips within the next week or two, a new pesticide will need to be sourced.

Brussel sprouts will be one of the large crops seeded in the media bed next as the cooler temps are ideal for their production. String beans and snap peas will continue to be seeded as well.

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Topics: Aquaponics, Water, Pest Management, Frasier, Aquaponic Supplements, Potassium

System Update: Frasier 6/27/17

Posted by Conor Quinlan on Jun 27, 2017 3:26:08 PM

Frasier

 

Nitrogen (mg/L)

 

 

 

Date

pH

Total Ammonia

Ammonia

Nitrite

Nitrate

Temp (Fo)

Alkalinity

mg/L

EC (mS)

6/09

7.00

0.25

n/a

0.25

350

76

50

1.60

6/12

6.9

0.25

n/a

2-5

-

80

-

1.66

6/14

6.85

0.25

n/a

0.5

-

81

-

1.70

6/16

7.05

0.25

n/a

1

300-350

81

57.5

1.62

6/19

 

0.25

n/a

2-5

-

81

-

1.64

6/21

7.15

0.25

n/a

2-5

-

82

-

1.66

6/23

7.2

0.25

n/a

0.25

300-350

82

75

1.67

06/09 -> 06/16 -> 06/23 Total Hardness: 500 -> 520 -> 540 mg/L CaCO3 equ
Calcium Level: 68 -> 67 -> 65 mg/L            Magnesium level: 82 -> 85 -> 92 mg/L
Phosphate Level: ~ 30 -> 25 -> 25   mg/L (as PO4-)

Water Quality Overview:

The pH has been increasing rather than dropping lately. There are a couple of reasons behind this. First is that the source water has a much higher alkalinity than previously observed at 100 mg/L versus 55 mg/L. The change in source water quality is affecting the chemistry of the water,  leading to higher pH levels. This means that our carbonate additions will need to be lowered. It is not unusual for source water quality to change over time and should therefore be measured consistently. The system also has a significant number of larger crops that can easily influence the pH of the solution by taking up more water or releasing higher levels of OH- or H+. The efficiency of the nitrifying bacteria within the media bed is equally as important, a static media bed (no siphoning) can lead to less nitrification and therefore higher pH levels. That was a major part in what occured in our system. 

A clog in the clarifier assembly due to buildup caused the siphon in our system to stop functioning and decreased nitrification production leading to higher nitrite levels. Clearing the clog with a large bristle brush pipe cleaner is very effective and should be done once a week.

The only addition made in the last two weeks was 50 grams of chelated iron which is now required in higher intervals with the addition of the heavier feeding crops in the media bed. It has only been 2.5 weeks (versus 2 months previously) since the last addition signifying how much more rapidly it is being absorbed by the crops.

The only supplements to the solution, besides fish feed, are the three carbonate compounds (K2CO3 MgCO3, CaCO3), JR Peters M.O.S.T Micro mix, Chelated DTPA Iron and Super Triple Phosphate. This is the max number of supplements that can be used in the Aqueduct for the growth of larger fruiting crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons, strawberries, squash, ect.

 

Fish Update:

Fish feeding rate and growth is fairly strong. The feeding rate has increased to 276 grams/day up from 250 grams/day. The growth of the fish is going well with an increase in size from 125 grams to 228 grams in the past 4 weeks. Using the fish size to feeding relationship the ideal feeding rate should be around 286 g/day so the tilapia are only about 10 grams/day off of their max feeding rate which is very good.

 

Above you can see the change that has occurred in size from 6/09 to 6/26. The second image being the most recent. The fish are growing faster now that the feeding rate is more consistent.

Crop Update:

Below is a representation of the crops in Frasier’s media bed from 6/09 (first) to 6/23 (second). Thus far the only crop having trouble is the cantaloupe.  This is because of its sensitivity to boron,  copper,  or transplanting. The cantaloupe seems to be recovering in the last several days and are growing far more effectively. It is most likely that the reason behind the problem was the stress induced by transplanting the crop.

The tomatoes and cantaloupe are growing very fast.  Their stems are quite thin due to low light levels and are beginning to fall over. Sticks will be needed to hoist them up. A couple of the tomato crops are now beginning to bloom and we will have our first tomatoes of the year very soon.

The thrip infestation is gone.  I have occasionally found a few thrips, so the crops are being tended weekly with natural pesticides until the population is completely exhausted. The crops have recovered from most of the thrip damage.

The strawberries have been trimmed and one more NFT channel has been removed to make more room for the remaining crops.

The strawberries are still very vegetative and consistently put out runners which means flowering is not being triggered. This is due to the high temperatures in our warehouse. A temperature around or below 50 F is generally required for a couple hours at night to induce flowering. Either a solution must be found to cool the strawberries or we are going to have to wait for the fall to get additional strawberry fruits. 

The Swish chard and basil crops which were added to the float bed on 6/09 and are doing well as expected. The basil started growing far better when transplanted from the hydro solution in the propagation tray to the float bed.

Above is an image of the full float bed which now has beets, swiss chard, basil, and a couple radish crops growing.

Below is an image of the beets on 6/09 (left) and (6/26) right. The right image also shows a close up of the towels and how they were wrapped around the beets. The beets are growing far better with moist paper towels wrapped around them. One was left without a towel as a control to observe the difference, which can be observed in the images. 

 

Outdoor Update:

The newly transplanted crops outdoors had some trouble with heavy winds but appear to be recovering nicely. The pepper crop didn’t make it, so it will be replaced. Below are images of the crops (top are the strawberries, bottom are tomatoes, Brussel sprouts, cantaloupe, and squash.

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Topics: Aquaponics, Strawberries, Pest Management, Frasier

System Update: Frasier 6/15/17

Posted by Conor Quinlan on Jun 15, 2017 2:30:00 PM

Frasier

 

Nitrogen (mg/L)

 

 

 

Date

pH

Total Ammonia

Ammonia

Nitrite

Nitrate

Temp (Fo)

Alkalinity

mg/L

EC (mS)

5/26

6.6 -> 7.3

0.25

n/a

0

350

75.5

25 -> 65

1.50

5/31

7.15

0.25

n/a

0

-

76

-

1.54

6/02

7.25

0.25

n/a

0

350

76.5

80

1.60

6/05

7.05

0.25

n/a

0

-

77

-

1.64

6/07

7.15

0.25

n/a

0.25

-

76

-

1.56

6/09

7.00

0.25

n/a

0.25

350

76

50

1.60

05/26 -> 06/02 -> 06/9/17 Total Hardness: 480 -> 510 -> 500 mg/L CaCO3 equ
Calcium Level: 74 -> 68 -> 68 mg/L            Magnesium level: ~72 -> 83 -> 82 mg/L
Phosphate Level: ~ 35 -> 30 -> 25  mg/L (as PO4-)

Water Quality Overview: The 100g K2CO3 and 125g MgCO3 addition continued to maintain the pH above 7.0 for two full weeks. The alkalinity is also increasing to levels higher than have previously been observed with just CaCO3 and MgCO3 due to the higher addition of K2CO3 which dissolves fully in water regardless of Ph.

Other than the typical carbonate addition, 50 grams of chelated iron (equ to 2 mg/L Fe) was added on 6/09 to replenish levels. The last 50 gram addition was added on 4/28 so that addition lasted just over 2 months.

Nitrate levels are more than sufficient for the growth of any crop and enough K has been added over the course of the last couple months to support the growth of any heavy feeding fruiting crop.

The only supplements to the solution, besides fish feed, are the three carbonate compounds (K2CO3 MgCO3, CaCO3), JR Peters M.O.S.T Micro mix, Chelated DTPA Iron and Super Triple Phosphate. This is the max number of supplements that can be used in the Aqueduct for the growth of larger fruiting crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons, strawberries, squash, ect.

Fish Update: The fish are performing well now that they are larger in size. The feeding rate is now increasing as predicted and has increased from 204 g/day to 252 g/day over the past weeks for a total increase of 0.4g of feed/fish/week. Using this data, we can assume that the fish are around 200 grams in weight which is a significant increase from 125 grams. The fish will be weighed next week to determine their progress since the last weighing on 5/23.

Crop Update: Additional heavy feeding crops have been added to the media bed including more tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, Asian eggplant, and habanero pepper. Pictured below is a drawing showing the placement of the crops paired with a picture of the media bed right now. 

The indeterminate tomato added to the system is growing without a problem with no signs of deficiencies at all. The new crops added to the media bed are expected to perform just as well.

The only hitch is that some of the recently added seedlings have been stunted by the sudden thrip population explosion. Luckily the infestation has been reduced to nearly nothing with the use of a new organic natural pesticide called pyrethrum. When incorporating IPM it is extremely important to rotate natural pesticides regularly to prevent tolerance. For the past year we have been utilizing spinosad, sesame seed oil and insecticidal soap which have become useless against thrips; we are now incorporating pyrethrum, neem oil and diatomaceous earth to control pest population. Since the first application of pyrethrum on 6/02 the thrip population has been reduced to near harmless levels. Crops will be observed on a daily basis to ensure the thrips don’t return to problematic levels. These organic pesticides can be found at local home improvement stores like Home Depot and Lowes.

The strawberries fruit trusses have been clipped since the quality of the fruit is beginning to decline. We are now waiting for the next blossom initiation. In the images below you can see the dramatic change in crop size in the past month. 

 Another row will be removed from the NFT component soon as the strawberries are taking up more and more space.

The radishes were harvested last week, showing significant cracking. This was due to the low humidity of the surrounding air (see image below). The beets are showing similar symptoms and in order to control it moist paper towels have been wrapped around the fruits to keep them wet (see image below). The crops can easily be grown via aquaponics but should be placed in the media bed for adequate humidity and moisture levels around the roots.

 

Outdoor Update: A variety of tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers have been transplanted outside to provide a comparison with our aquaponics grown crops.  Below is an image of the strawberries planted outside. With the increasing summer heat, the strawberries may need to be covered with a shade cloth.

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Topics: Aquaponics, Insect Control, Pest Management, Frasier